There are three acknowledged accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: bone marrow, adipose tissue, and blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just soon after birth. Of all stem cell treatment types, autologous harvesting involves the least danger.
Adult stem cells are regularly used in numerous health-related therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with traits consistent with cells of numerous tissues this kind of as muscle groups or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells produced via somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. Study into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Until at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.
Stem cells are cells with the possible to produce into many different types of cells in the physique. They serve as a fix system for the physique. There are two major types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.
Stem cells are different from other cells in the physique in three methods:
- They can divide and renew themselves above a lengthy time
- They are unspecialized, so they are not able to do certain functions in the physique
- They have the possible to turn into specialized cells, this kind of as muscle cells, blood cells, and brain cells
Doctors and scientists are enthusiastic about stem cells because they could aid in many different locations of overall health and health-related study. Studying stem cells might aid make clear how critical problems this kind of as birth defects and cancer come about. Stem cells might one particular day be used to make cells and tissues for treatment of many illnesses. Examples consist of Parkinson’s condition, Alzheimer’s condition, spinal cord injury, heart condition, diabetes, and arthritis.
How can stem cells treat condition?
When most people feel about about stem cells treating condition they feel of a stem cell transplant.
In a stem cell transplant, embryonic stem cells are very first specialized into the required adult cell type. Then, people mature cells exchange tissue that is damaged by condition or injury. This type of remedy could be used to:
- exchange neurons damaged by spinal cord injury, stroke, Alzheimer’s condition, Parkinson’s condition or other neurological difficulties
- generate insulin that could treat people with diabetes and heart muscle cells that could fix injury soon after a heart attack or
- exchange virtually any tissue or organ that is injured or diseased.
But embryonic stem cell-based mostly therapies can do a lot more.
- Studying how stem cells produce into heart muscle cells could provide clues about how we could induce heart muscle to fix itself soon after a heart attack.
- The cells could be used to examine condition, identify new medicines, or display medicines for toxic side effects.
Any of these would have a significant influence on human overall health without having transplanting a single cell.
In theory, there is no limit to the types of illnesses that could be treated with stem cell study. Given that researchers might be ready to examine all cell types via embryonic stem cells, they have the possible to make breakthroughs in any condition.
CIRM has produced condition pages for many of the major illnesses getting targeted by stem cell scientists. You can uncover people condition pages right here.
You can also type our full checklist of CIRM awards to see what we’ve funded in different condition locations.